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Milgram published many journal articles and several books. Here are his two most important books. You should be able to find them in most university libraries. These are still in print and, therefore, can be purchased. They are both in paperback.

Stanley Milgram (1983). Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. New York: Harper/Collins.

This is a very readable account of his obedience experiments, his explanation of his findings, and some of the controversy that surrounded them. Its literary merits received recognition by being nominated for a National Book Award. Also, it has had a worldwide audience-it has been translated into 11 languages: French, German, Japanese, Indonesian, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Dutch, Danish, Italian and, ironically, Serbo-Croatian.

Stanley Milgram (1992) (edited by John Sabini and Maury Silver). The Individual in a Social World: Essays and Experiments. Second Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

This is a collection of most of Milgram's writings which first appeared in various magazines and journals. It is the definitive source for learning about the variety and wide scope of his innovative ideas.

Milgram's very first account of the findings of his obedience studies appeared in the following article. Although the article appeared in a professional journal, it is remarkably jargon-free and very readable-a hallmark of all of Milgram's writings:

Stanley Milgram (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 67, pp. 371-378.

An overview and analysis of all of Milgram's research (not just on obedience to authority), as well as the most complete bibliography of his writings, can be found in the following chapter:

Thomas Blass (1992). The social psychology of Stanley Milgram. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 25. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 277-328.

Both of these can be found in most university libraries.

Although Milgram conducted his obedience research in 1961-1962, it continues to inspire valuable research and analysis. I recently edited a book which demonstrates the vibrancy of that research by presenting some of its most important contemporary uses and applications. Among the chapters is one written by Milgram's widow, Alexandra Milgram. Three of the chapters are by former students of Milgram. There is also a state-of-the-art chapter by Zimbardo and colleagues about his famous prison simulation. T he book is:

Blass, T. (Ed.) (2000). Obedience to authority: Current perspectives on the Milgram paradigm. Published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

You can see the complete Table of Contents and also order the book at the publisher's website,

Dr. Blass's Milgram-related Publications:

Blass, T. (1991). Understanding behavior in the Milgram obedience experiment: The role of personality, situations, and their interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 398-413. (Reprinted in: Lesko, W. A. (1994). Readings in social psychology: General, classic, and contemporary selections, 2nd ed. NY: Allyn & Bacon.

Blass, T. (1992). The social psychology of Stanley Milgram. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 25, pp. 277-329. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Blass, T. (1993). Psychological perspectives on the perpetrators of the Holocaust: The role of situational pressures, personal dispositions, and their interactions. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 7, 30-50.

Blass, T. (1993). Review of "The roots of evil: The origins of genocide and other group violence," by Ervin Staub. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 7, 276-280.

Blass, T. (1994). Stanley Milgram (1933-1984). In R. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology, Second edition. New York: Wiley.

Blass, T. (1995). Right-Wing Authoritarianism and role as predictors of attributions about obedience to authority. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 99-100.

Krackow, A., & Blass, T. (1995). When nurses obey or defy inappropriate physician orders: Attributional differences. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 585-594.

Blass, T. (1996). Stanley Milgram: A life of inventiveness and controversy. In G. Kimble, A. Boneau, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology, Vol. 2. Washington, D.C. and Hillsdale, NJ: American Psychological Association and Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Blass, T. (1996). Experimental invention and controversy: The life and work of Stanley Milgram. The General Psychologist, 32, 47-55. [This is a somewhat longer version of the previous reference.]

Blass, T. (1996). The Milgram obedience experiment: Support for a cognitive view of defensive attribution. Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 407-410.

Blass, T. (1996). Attribution of responsibility and trust in Milgram's obedience experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1529-1535.

Blass, T. (1998). Stanley Milgram and his obedience experiments. Clio's Psyche, 4, 109-112. (Invited article)

Blass, T. (1998). The roots of Milgram's obedience experiments and their relevance to the Holocaust. Analyse & Kritik, 20, 46-53. (Invited article)

Blass, T. (1999). Stanley Milgram. In J. A. Garraty (Ed.), American National Biography. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press and American Council of Learned Societies. (Invited article)

Blass, T. (1999). The Milgram paradigm after 35 years: Some things we now know about obedience to authority. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 955-978.

Blass, T. (Ed.), (2000). Obedience to authority: Current perspectives on the Milgram paradigm. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Blass, T. (2000). Stanley Milgram (1933-1984). Encyclopedia of Psychology. American Psychological Association. (Invited article)

Blass, T. (2000). Invited response to review of "Obedience to authority: Current perspectives on the Milgram paradigm." British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 624-25.

Blass, T. & Schmitt, C. (2001). The nature of perceived authority in the Milgram paradigm: Two replications. Current Psychology, 20, 115-121. (Invited submission)

Blass, T. (2001, Spring). Stanley Milgram and leadership. Effect, pp. 7-8.

Blass, T. (2002). Social psychological perspectives on obedience. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. (Invited article)

Blass, T. (2002). Perpetrator behavior as destructive obedience: An evaluation of Stanley Milgram's perspective, the most influential social-psychological approach to the Holocaust. In L. Newman & R. Erber (Eds.). Understanding genocide: The social psychology of the Holocaust. Oxford University Press. (Invited chapter)

Blass, T. (2002, March/April). The man who shocked the world. Psychology Today, pp. 68-74.

Blass, T. (2004). The Man Who Shocked the World:  The Life and Legacy of Stanley Milgram.  New York, NY: Basic Books.

Site Overview | Stanley Milgram Basics | Important References ]
Milgram's Films | Little Known Facts about Milgram | About Dr. Thomas Blass ]
Memorable Milgram Quotes | Question of the Month ]